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Flexible I/O Connections
The Iron Pi has 8 flexible I/O connections on the main terminal block. Each I/O point offers 3 operating modes:
- Analog Input
- Digital Input
- Digital Output
This simplified schematic illustrates each I/O point's key features, including an open collector output switch and a switchable 5.1K pull-up to 5 volts.
Iron Pi I/O Simplified Schematic
The pull-up resistor for each input can be switched in or out via the DIP switches on the bottom of the unit:
The switch numbers correspond to the I/O number, e.g. switch 1 controls the pull-up for I/O 1. When the switch is up / on, the pull-up is enabled, and when the switch is down /off, the pull-up is disabled.
In most cases, the pull-up resistor should be disabled when using an Iron Pi I/O point as an input. To read an input value, connect the source's signal ground to the Iron Pi's signal ground, and connect the signal to the Iron Pi's I/O terminal.
In analog mode, each input can measure between 0 and 10 volts. The input can tolerate up to 24 volts, but the measurement range is only 0-10V.
In digital mode, the input will read low below 1V and read high above 2.5V, which makes the Iron Pi's IOs compatible with 3.3V and 5V digital logic outputs. As with analog mode, the inputs can tolerate up to 24 volts in digital input mode.
Never apply a voltage above 24 volts or below 0 volts to the Iron Pi's I/O points.
The Iron Pi's inputs can be configured to read the status of a dry contact switch. Since the dry contact switch cannot supply any voltage of its own, we can use the Iron Pi's pull-up resistor as a voltage source.
Reading a dry contact switch with an IO
To enable the pull-up, move the corresponding DIP switch to the up / on position. In this picture, the pull-up for IO #1 is enabled, and the pull-ups for all other IOs are disabled:
Enabling the pull-up for IO #1
The Iron Pi features open-collector style digital outputs, which function like a switch that connects the I/O terminal to ground. The benefit of open collector outputs is that they can switch loads at a variety of DC voltages, since the high side voltage is supplied externally.
The example below shows how to connect a low-current load directly to an Iron Pi's IO point.
If you need to switch high voltage or high current loads, you can use the Iron Pi's IOs to control the coil / control input of a relay:
If you're driving a mechanical relay coil, you need a flyback diode in the circuit to prevent large voltage spikes at the Iron Pi's IO terminal when the relay is de-energized. Check whether your relay includes a flyback diode, or whether you need to connect one externally. See the Wikipedia article on flyback diodes for more info.